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Any analysis in Tableau can be expressed in terms of percentages. For example, rather than viewing sales for every product, you might want to view each product’s sales as a percentage of the total sales for all products.
In Tableau Desktop, you calculate percentages by selecting the Analysis > Percentages Of menu item. When you do this, all measures on the worksheet are displayed as a percentage based on all the table data.
The percentage options on the Analysis menu correspond to the percentage table calculations. When you select a percentage option, you are actually adding a Percent of Total table calculation. See Transform Values with Table Calculations for more information.